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Villages on Kuroshima IslandVillages on Kuroshima Island

(Ⅲ) Hidden Christians’ endeavours to continue and spread their religious faith


Yuko Hidden Christians maintained their faith in these villages by praying to the Maria Kannon statue in a Buddhist temple after their migration to former clan pasturelands in need of redevelopment.

Hidden Christians migrated to uninhabited areas on Kuroshima Island and continued their religious faith, following the policy of the Hirado clan to encourage migration and cultivation of official pastures which had earlier been abandoned by the Hirado clan. The Hidden Christians continued to practise their faith in the new settlements on Kuroshima Island with the tacit acceptance of pre-existing Buddhist communities, and venerated the statue of Maria Kannon which they had secretly placed in the Buddhist temple that they outwardly belonged to. The Hidden Christians rejoined the Catholic Church after the lifting of the ban on Christianity, and they initially used the house of the former religious leader (Mizukata) as a temporary church. Hidden Christians’ tradition came to an end when they eventually constructed a new church in the central area of the island.

Kuroshima Island, with a circumference of almost 12 km, is located to the west of Sasebo City, which is in the northwestern part of Kyushu Island. On this island, there remain the former pastures that were cultivated by the Hidden Christian migrants from Sotome, the Buddhist temple where the Hidden Christians secretly venerated a Buddhist statue as the Virgin Mary (Maria Kannon), the sites of the houses of Hidden Christian leaders as well as their communities’ graveyards, the site of the magistrate’s office where the Efumi ceremony took place, and the site of the church that was built after the lifting of the ban.

There are no records attesting to a Catholic mission on the island during the latter half of the 16th century, suggesting that there was no direct introduction of Christianity by the European missionaries to the island.

The Hirado clan established official pastures on the island in the 17th century, but they were abandoned in the early 19th century. The clan then decided to convert the pastures into farmland and encouraged peasants to migrate to the island to cultivate the once-abandoned sites. Following this encouragement, peasants migrated to Kuroshima Island from Sotome and other places, and had formed seven new villages by the middle of the 19th century. Among the migrants many were Hidden Christians, and six out of these seven villages were actually Hidden Christian villages: Hikazu, Neya, Nakiri, Tashiro, Warabe and Todobira.

The Hidden Christians on Kuroshima Island outwardly behaved as Buddhists and were affiliated to a Buddhist temple, Kozenji Temple, which had recently been established in Honmura Village in the early 19th century in response to the increase in population resulting from migration to the island. On Kuroshima Island, the Efumi ceremony was conducted every year in order to confirm that there were no Christians in the villages. The ceremony took place in the Magistrate’s Office at the house of the headman of Honmura Village—a branch office that the Hirado clan used to control the island. The Hidden Christians were forced to step on plates bearing images of Christ or the Virgin Mary.

The Hidden Christians secretly placed a figure called Maria Kannon in the main hall of the temple. It was originally a standing image of a Buddhist deity, Kannon Bodhisattva, but venerated by Hidden Christians as the Virgin Mary. They outwardly participated in the Buddhist services while actually worshipping the Virgin Mary there. The Hidden Christians on Kuroshima Island thus maintained their faith by behaving as Buddhists outwardly. One of the ways in which this approach can be seen was in the distinctive way that they created their graveyards—at first glance they appeared to be Buddhist graveyards but in fact their burial method and the direction of their gravestones were actually quite different from ordinary Buddhist graves.

Hearing the news of the Discovery of Hidden Christians at Oura Cathedral in 1865, leaders of Hidden Christian communities in the Nagasaki region began to contact European missionaries of the cathedral. Hidden Christian leaders on Kuroshima Island also secretly visited Oura Cathedral and revealed their Christian faith. As the missionaries regarded the baptisms that the Hidden Christians had conducted by themselves as invalid, the Hidden Christians received new catechetical instruction from the missionaries. Consequently, by 1872, immediately prior to the official lifting of the ban on Christianity, all of the Hidden Christians on the island had rejoined the Catholic Church.

In the beginning, they selected two sites for temporary churches. One of these was the house of the Deguchi family, which had served as Mizukata in Hikazu Village for generations during the ban. As momentum for building a new church grew among the communities on the island, the first Kuroshima Church was constructed in 1880 in the central part of the island, which was convenient for everyone. This construction symbolically marked the end of Hidden Christians’ tradition in the villages on the island. Local Catholics still offer prayers at the present Kuroshima Church, newly built in 1902, every week to atone for their ancestors’ trampling on Christian images in the Efumi ceremony during the ban on Christianity, thereby keeping alive the memory of the period of the ban.

01_黒島の集落
01_Villages on Kuroshima Island
01_黒島の集落
02_本村集落
02_Honmura Village
02_本村集落
03_根谷集落
03_Neya Village
03_根谷集落
04_蕨集落
04_Warabe Village
04_蕨集落
05_本村役所跡
05_Site of Honmura Office
05_本村役所跡
06_興禅寺_池田勉撮影
06_Kozenji Temple (a picture taken by Ikeda Tsutomu)
06_興禅寺_池田勉撮影
07_興禅寺の梵鐘 (潜伏キリシタンの名前が刻まれている)
07_Bell in Kozenji Temple (The name of a Hidden Christian is engraved.)
07_興禅寺の梵鐘 (潜伏キリシタンの名前が刻まれている)
08_興禅寺のマリア観音(現存しない)
08_Maria Kannon statue in Kozenji Temple. (This does not exist any longer.)
08_興禅寺のマリア観音(現存しない)
09_仕切牧墓地
09_Shikirimaki graveyard
09_仕切牧墓地
10_出口家の屋敷跡_池田勉撮影
10_Site of the house of the Deguchi family (a picture taken by Ikeda Tsutomu)
10_出口家の屋敷跡_池田勉撮影
11_初代黒島教会堂跡(現在の黒島天主堂)
11_Current Kuroshima Church standing on the site of the first church
11_初代黒島教会堂跡(現在の黒島天主堂)

Basic information

Map
Designation title as cultural assetsLocationDesignation categoryYear of designation
Cultural Landscape of Kuroshima Island in SaseboSasebo City, Nagasaki PrefectureImportant Cultural Landscape selected by the national government2011

Access

Kuroshima Church(”Hidden Christian Sites in the Nagasaki Region” Information Centre)

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